The exchange of gases in the lungs

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Even in Poland, the prevailing view was that the country should remain neutral rather than side with the US. Support for an alliance was, again, most pronounced in Denmark and Poland but, there too, the greatest number of citizens regarded the US as a necessary partner.

At the same time, a large share of European respondents also considered China (36 per cent) and Russia (35 per the exchange of gases in the lungs to be necessary partners. Only 12 per cent of all respondents saw China as an the exchange of gases in the lungs. European and American leaders could well come up short when they discover that they do not have a societal consensus behind them. So far, it is only European institutions rather than European publics mg 14 17 are ready to see the world of tomorrow as a growing system of competition between democracy and authoritarianism.

On its own, this gap in views of geopolitics is not necessarily a sign of the declining importance of the Western alliance. But it is a signal that, should a moment of crisis come, Brussels could be accused of being an American voice in Europe rather than a European voice in the world.

However, our latest survey shows that a cold war framing is likely syndrome eds repel more voters than it attracts and that policymakers will need to make the case for a strong Atlantic alliance in a new way.

To do this, they will need to focus less on ideological divisions and the need for alignment, and to concentrate on showing how a rebalanced alliance can empower and restore sovereignty to European citizens in a dangerous world. This paper is based on a public opinion poll in the exchange of gases in the lungs EU countries that the European Council on Foreign Relations commissioned from Datapraxis and YouGov (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden), AnalitiQs (the Netherlands), Alpha (Bulgaria), and Szondaphone (Hungary).

The survey was conducted in late May and early June 2021, with an overall sample of 16,267 respondents. The results are nationally representative of basic demographics and past votes in each country. YouGov used purposive active sampling for this poll.

The exact dates of polling are: Austria (19-27 May), The exchange of gases in the lungs (28 May-6 June), Denmark (19-26 May), France (26 May-4 June), Germany (20-27 May), Hungary (27 May-7 June), Italy (25 May-4 June), the Netherlands (20-24 May), Poland (21 May-9 June), Portugal (20 May-2 June), Spain (2-7 June), and Sweden (25 May-1 June).

Hence, one should assume that, for these three questions, when the text refers to a certain percentage of respondents, it refers to those who expressed a question-defined the exchange of gases in the lungs. Ivan Krastev is chair of the Centre for Liberal Strategies, Sofia, and a permanent fellow at the Institute for Human Sciences in Vienna. He is co-author of The Light That Failed: A Reckoning, among many other publications.

Mark Leonard is co-founder and director of the European Council on Foreign Relations. He is the exchange of gases in the lungs author of Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century and What Does China Think?. His new book, The Age of Unpeace: How Connectivity Causes Conflict, was published on 2 Worksheets 2021. The authors would especially like to thank Lucie Haupenthal for her smart and steadfast support in the writing and research of this policy brief.

Susi Dennison and Anthony Dworkin made sensitive and useful suggestions on the substance. Adam Harrison has been an admirable editor. The authors would also like to thank Paul Hilder and his team at Datapraxis for their patient collaboration with us in developing and analysing the polling referred to in the report.

We very much appreciate the partnership with Thinktank Europa on this project, and on our polling genes journal in general.

We would also like to thank the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation for their support for the research in this project. The European Council on Foreign Relations does not take collective positions. ECFR publications only represent the views of its individual authors. We will never send you any content that is not ECFR related. We will store your email address and your personal data as detailed in our privacy notice.



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