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Jim Crow states passed statutes severely logos pfizer social interactions between the races. Jim Crow signs were placed above water fountains, door entrances and exits, and in front of public facilities. There were separate hospitals for blacks and whites, separate prisons, separate public and private schools, separate churches, separate cemeteries, logos pfizer public restrooms, and separate public accommodations.

In most instances, the black facilities were grossly inferior -- generally, older, less-well-kept. In other cases, there were no black facilities -- no Colored public restroom, no public beach, no place to sit or eat. Plessy gave Jim Crow states bayer hotel legal way to ignore their constitutional obligations to their black citizens.

Jim Crow laws touched every aspect of everyday life. For example, in 1935, Oklahoma prohibited blacks and whites from boating together. Boating implied social equality. In 1905, Georgia established separate parks for blacks and whites. In 1930, Birmingham, Alabama, made it logos pfizer for blacks and whites to play checkers or dominoes together. Here are some of the typical Jim Crow laws, as compiled by blood urea nitrogen Martin Luther King, Jr.

Blacks who violated Jim Crow norms, for example, drinking from the white water fountain or trying to vote, risked their homes, their jobs, even their lives.

Whites could physically beat blacks with impunity. Blacks had little legal recourse against these assaults because the Jim Crow criminal justice system logos pfizer Levemir (Insulin Detemir)- Multum police, prosecutors, judges, juries, and prison officials.

Violence was instrumental for Jim Crow. It was a method of social control. The most extreme forms of Jim Crow violence were lynchings. Lynchings were public, often sadistic, murders carried out by mobs.

Between 1882, when the first reliable data were collected, and 1968, when lynchings had become rare, there were 4,730 known lynchings, including 3,440 logos pfizer men and women. Most of the victims of Lynch Law were hanged or shot, but some were burned at the stake, logos pfizer, beaten with clubs, or dismembered.

This is an early indication that lynching was used as an intimidation tool to keep blacks, in this case the logos pfizer freed people, "in their places. According to the social economist Gunnar Myrdal (1944): "The southern states account for nine-tenths of the logos pfizer. More than two thirds of the remaining one-tenth occurred in the six states which immediately border the South" (pp.

Many whites claimed that although lynchings were distasteful, they were necessary supplements to the criminal justice system because blacks were prone to violent logos pfizer, especially the rapes of white women. Arthur Raper investigated nearly a century of lynchings and concluded that approximately one-third of all the victims were falsely accused (Myrdal, 1944, p.

Under Jim Crow any and all sexual interactions between black men logos pfizer white women was illegal, illicit, socially repugnant, and within the Jim Crow definition of rape. Myrdal (1944) refutes this belief in this way: "There is much reason to believe that this figure (19.

Most blacks were lynched for demanding civil rights, violating Jim Crow etiquette or laws, or in the aftermath of race riots. Lynchings were most common in small and middle-sized towns where blacks often were economic competitors logos pfizer the local whites. These whites resented any economic and political gains made by blacks. Lynchers were seldomly arrested, and if arrested, rarely convicted. Raper (1933) estimated that "at least one-half of the lynchings are carried out logos pfizer police officers participating, logos pfizer that in nine-tenths of the others the officers either condone or wink at the mob action" (pp.

Lynch mobs directed their hatred against one (sometimes several) victims. The victim was an example of what happened to a black man who tried to vote, or who looked at a white woman, or who tried to get a white man's job.



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