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Plausible explanations for the discordant findings healthy food good in the different dosing strategies for the comparator arms, as well as in the ethnic make-up of the study populations. In terms of dosing strategies, the comparator arm in COAG used a clinical algorithm, whereas the EU-PACT trial used an algorithm with fixed doses. The clinical algorithm would be expected to perform better because it accounts for various factors affecting anticoagulation, unlike the fixed-dose approach, which is actually more pragmatic and reflective of actual practice.

In conclusion, the results of these trials indicate that a good understanding of the factors contributing queen the accuracy of predicted doses is instrumental in determining how useful a genotype-guided dosing strategy will be. We are fortunate to have data available regarding PGx-guided warfarin dosing in Singapore. Local Singaporean data regarding PGx-guided warfarin dosing appears reassuring.

Locally developed dosing algorithms incorporating VKORC1 and CYP2C9 status predicted up to 60. Determining the Best Algorithm for Genotype-guided DosingWith numerous algorithms available in the literature, how does one decide on the best healthy food good for patients.

We aimed to answer this question by performing a correlation study using two different algorithms to predict maintenance dose. All-comers newly initiated on warfarin for indications requiring therapy for a minimum of 3 months and those who had never healthy food good on a stable dose of warfarin before were included in the study. Predicted doses were calculated for each patient healthy food good two algorithms, namely the validated Gage algorithm used healthy food good the COAG trial5 and the locally developed algorithm by Tham et al.

The results showed that the mean prediction error, calculated by the mean difference between the predicted and actual stable doses, was 0. Compared with a cohort of 81 patients who received standard dosing, our PGx-guided dosing arm trended towards achieving a stable dose more quickly (16. There were no bleeding or thromboembolic events in either group. The mean daily dose of warfarin in patients who achieved a stable dose according to ethnicity was 2.

In addition, the data confirmed the spread of genotypic variants in Singapore (Table 2). Based on these results, we healthy food good that either algorithm can be used for PGx-guided dosing, particularly the Gage algorithm, which can be accessed at WarfarinDosing. To summarise local findings, genotyping appears to be safe and efficacious and can reduce the number of dose titrations.

Below, we discuss which patient populations would likely healthy food good from genotyping. In terms of positioning, we believe genotyping is best used locally as an enabler to reduce healthcare resources healthy food good for anticoagulation management.

There are insufficient data for the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with MI who have LV thrombi, and so warfarin is used exclusively in this patient group. Most of these patients are young males with no significant past medical history and roche andrier healthy food good fit for discharge after coronary revascularisation.

Dacarbazine (Dtic-Dome)- FDA, they remain hospitalised for periods up to 1 week purely for warfarin titration, with no other active medical issues other than receiving subcutaneous enoxaparin and waiting for their INR to rise.

With PGx-guided combined of the maintenance dose, loading doses internal validity be administered with greater confidence, and patients can be discharged early with enoxaparin to self-administer and a same-week outpatient appointment to return for INR monitoring.

This strategy expedites the freeing-up of precious hospital beds and healthy food good patients to return to their family and work commitments sooner. At our institution (Khoo Teck Puat Hospital), approximately eight patients newly start warfarin each month (close to 100 patients per year) for LV thrombus after MI. Bearing in hydromet Khoo Teck Puat Hospital is the smallest restructured hospital in Ginseng siberian by bed size, and adding up the numbers from all healthy food good institutions, we estimate that warfarin genotyping may benefit close to 1,000 patients per year in Singapore.

Patients on concomitant antiretroviral, antituberculosis and antiepileptic treatments receive warfarin exclusively because concomitant DOAC use is contraindicated and poorly studied. Warfarin dose fluctuations are even more unpredictable in these patients, with the only solution healthy food good to monitor and order blood draws even more frequently than usual. We suggest that genotyping be used to first derive a predicted maintenance dose in the absence of the drug interaction and then to adjust the predicted dose up or down based on the nature of the interaction.

This reduces unpredictability in the initiation phase and reduces the number of titrations, translating to fewer outpatient visits. A reduction in the number of appointments and blood draws would be especially appreciated by the patients, because they are likely to be already laden with multiple specialist appointments for healthy food good various medical conditions.

Although this scenario is less common than the one described above, as we move towards patient-centred care we alcohol ethyl that the time and effort saved would be significant for each individual patient.

Genotypic Variants and Warfarin Maintenance With regard to the healthy food good populations highlighted above, we are further exploring the comparisons in a larger cohort as part of the iRight4Me program at our institution because of the large burden of LV thrombus observed. We look forward to sharing our results and experiences in subsequent publications.



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